YORKSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL


Volume 80 (2008)


CONTENTS


Duggleby Howe, Burial J and the Eastern Yorkshire Club Scene by A.M. Gibson and A. Ogden

The large round barrow at Duggleby Howe in North Yorkshire (also known as Howe Hill) lies on the southern slope of the upper Gypsey Race valley and is well known in the local and national archaeological literature as one of the largest and richest Neolithic round barrows in Britain. It was first excavated 1798 or 1799 by the reverend Christopher Sykes but no records remain of his excavation nor do any finds survive. Almost 100 years later, in 1890, J. R. Mortimer re-opened the mound with the sponsorship of Sir Tatton Sykes of Sledmere (Mortimer 1905, 23 – 42, No. 273) and excavated an area 40 feet (c.12m) square over the centre of the barrow.

In 2006, generously funded by English Heritage, the present writers commenced a re-examination of Mortimer’s Duggleby Howe archive. The aim of the project was to obtain radiocarbon dates from the burials within the mound and thus create an absolute chronology on which to anchor the relative sequence. This dating programme is still underway but before any human or animal bone could be used for dating, it was first necessary to record the surviving bones. In so doing, Burial J has proved of particular interest.

Two Unusual Romano-British Dragoneque Brooches from Well, North Yorkshire by F. Hunter

Two recent finds of Romano-British dragonesque brooches from near Well, North Yorkshire, are discussed. They illustrate different aspects of the transfer of Iron Age art styles into the Roman period, one, apparently uniquely, has connections to southern British traditions.

Excavations at Moss Street Depot, Moss Street, York by N. Toop et al

During 2003 and 2004, archaeological evaluation and excavation were undertaken at the site of Moss Street Depot, York by Field Archaeology Specialists (FAS) Ltd. Six phases of activity were identified, dating from the Roman period to the modern day. This information adds to a growing corpus of evidence for Roman and medieval activity close to and on the Mount. Three phases of Roman activity were defined: Period 1 consisted of rubbish dumping from the colonia and land division of 2nd to early 3rd century date; Period 2 consisted of the establishment of a trackway and possible funerary activity in the 3rd century; and Period 3 consisted of inhumation burial in the later 3rd to 4th century. A hiatus of activity followed, until the 11th to 13th century, when the site was subdivided into a series of linear tofts. Little evidence for post-medieval activity was recovered, prior to the establishment of the Moss Street Depot and associated buildings during the 20th century.

An Early Carved Head and Anglo-Danish Sculptures at Kildwick Church, North Yorkshire by J. Billingsley

In the tower of St Andrew’s Church, Kildwick-in-Craven, North Yorkshire, is a carved stone head interpolated into the stonework above the main doorway. It is of a style not found elsewhere in the church, and would benefit from further investigation as to its age and provenance.

The head is of a most unusual appearance and does not appear to accord with conventions familiar from medieval or later ecclesiastical architecture. Its closest parallel might lie in some of the cruder carved heads from the Romanesque period, such as at Adel, West Yorkshire. There are also no other carved heads of early date in the church fabric.

Medieval to Modern Baileygate, Pontefract by C. Fenton-Thomas

Recent excavations by On-Site Archaeology have revealed a long sequence of occupation from the medieval period up to the 19th century, on a site close to Pontefract castle. The work was small in scale but identified structural remains and other deposits securely dated to the 12th century. Following this period the site was occupied less intensively until the late 17th or early 18th century when it was landscaped and new property divisions were established. This may have coincided with the reconstruction of the area following the demolition of Pontefract Castle after the Civil War.

The Medieval Cemetery at Riccall Landing: A Reappraisal by R.A. Hall et al

Human skeletons found by the River Ouse at Riccall in the 1950s and 1980s have hitherto been linked speculatively to the documented defeat of invading Norsemen in 1066. To test this hypothesis, excavation records and surviving artefacts have been reviewed, and the skeletons have been examined osteologically for the first time. Isotope analysis refutes the initial conclusion that individuals buried here originated in Scandinavia; radiocarbon determinations indicate that the cemetery was in use from the 7th to the 12th centuries.

Medieval Burgage Plots in Bedale, North Yorkshire by J. Proctor et al

Archaeological investigations undertaken by Pre-Construct Archaeology in 2002 and 2003 on land to the rear of 26 Market Place, Bedale, revealed a sequence of medieval burgage plot boundaries with the recovered pottery assemblage demonstrating that these were in place by at least the 13th-14th century, with reinstatement on a number of occasions. Part of a narrow plot extending back from the street frontage was exposed within the excavated area, with evidence of subdivision. Later medieval activity was represented by the corner of a stone structure, probably an outbuilding, of 14th-15th century date and a yard surface. Developed soils suggested (I’ve guessed this as the written text didn’t make sense) that this backlot area had been used as gardens from the late medieval period until the 19th century.

The Esholt Priory Charter of 1485 and its Decoration by W. Connor

The rediscovery of the Esholt Priory Charter of 1485 is a matter of great significance to students of manuscript decoration in the 15th century. Until offered for sale at Sotheby’s in June 1990 its existence had been unknown for over a century. It was illustrated by Philemon Slater in his History of Guiseley in 1880, when it belonged with other deeds and documents relating to the pre-Reformation monastic estate then in the possession of General Crompton-Stansfield of Esholt Hall. However, it and some other items noted by Slater were not included in the deposit of the Esholt Estate archives with Leeds City Libraries in 1940. It is now clear the Slater’s illustration did the artist little justice. Here we have a document of the utmost importance, not only in terms of its decorative qualities and the circumstances in which it was created, but also for the light it throws on the accidents which could befall benefactions and patronage at this time.

The Dissolution of the Monasteries in Sixteenth-Century York by C. Cross

Between the summer 1536 and the end of 1539 the Tudor state suppressed all the monasteries in York which together housed around 145 monks, nuns and friars. After charting the mechanics of dissolution, this paper assesses how the dispossessed York religious fared in the secular world.

Archbishop Harcourt’s Recruitment of Literate Clergymen. Part 1: Non-Graduate Clergy in the Diocese of York, 1800-1849 by S. Slinn

A study of the York ordination records 1800-1849 demonstrates a significant graduate deficit amongst men taking Orders in York diocese. In the first quarter of the 19th century, non-graduate candidates, known as literates, comprised over 50% of those ordained, peaking in 1818 when over 75% had no university degree. This challenges the assumption that graduate clergy were the norm in the early nineteenth century, except in unrepresentative backwaters. The experience of York diocese, with its vast territory and population, should not be easily dismissed. Towards the middle of the century the proportion of graduates recruited increased. This was due to a combination of factors, including the increase in the numbers graduating from university, changing expectations of men taking orders and changes within the diocese concerning the values of stipends, benefices, and changes in pastoral organisation. Archbishop Harcourt showed concern about pastoral standards. From the mid 1820s he stipulated that non-graduate ordinands should have studied at St Bees Clerical Institution or with a clergyman authorised by him. He harnessed the existing training work of a number of clergymen in a way that served the diocese’s needs. This will be examined further in Part 2 of this article, ‘Clerical Seminaries for Literates in York Dioceses, 1800-49’, to be published in 2009.

‘In Small Thinghs Forgotten’: Finding Women in the Clergy Returns of the Archbishop of York’s Visitation in 1865 by R.M. Larsen

The importance of the clergy returns from the visitations of bishops and archbishops have long been recognised by ecclesiastical scholars and by local historians. However, the usefulness of these documents for many other historians has been overlooked. This paper examines how the returns from the Archbishop of York’s visitation in 1865 can be used to explore the roles of women in parishes across the York diocese. It focuses on a number of themes, including women as patrons, educators, charitable workers and members of the congregation. It highlights that, while the discourse of separate spheres was a powerful one for Christians in the 19th century, the activities of women in these parishes were not formally delineated by the concepts of ‘public’ and ‘private’. Instead the language used by the clerics was far more subtle, and demonstrates how important women were to the Victorian Church of England.

Richard Conyers of Helmsley – The Adventures of An Eighteenth Century Memoir by Q.H. Wilson

In October 1794 the Evangelical Magazine, a periodical by and for the growing Evangelical party within the Church of England, published a number of pieces, including a substantial Memoir, concerning the Revd Richard Conyers (1725-86), who had been Vicar of Helmsley from 1755 to 1776, and then Rector of Deptford for the last ten years of his life. Until recently there was no reason for believing that these various pieces were linked by anything other than their availability to the 1794 editors. However, the discovery of a handwritten version of this text in the possession of the present vicar of Helmsley, together with an 1872 ‘edition’ or ‘reprint’ of the Memoir, held in the York Minster Library, raised interesting questions about the text and how late Victorian Evangelicals looked upon their own history. On the one hand, there is no doubt that they revered their spiritual forebears: on the other – if what has happened here is any indication – they felt no special constraints in editing the records to suit their particular purpose. The intention of the present article is to present the original text with the 1872 abridgement and in so doing to illustrate how one generation can develop and impose its own narrative on the past.

The Norman Origins of the Savile Family by J.B. Raynor

Definitive studies of the early history of the Savile family carried out by Clay and Baildon in the 1920s attempted to identify the village in Normandy from where the family name originated. New evidence is presented to show that the most likely candidate is the village of Serville, now called Daubeuf Serville, in Seine Maritime, 50km NW of Rouen. It is likely that the first Saviles came to Yorkshire in the 12th century and may have been members of the Normandy Hébert family. They certainly had strong connections with the Warenne family fief in Pays de Gaux area of Normandy which would be the reason for them to go to Yorkshire where they became important persons in the Wakefield manor held by the Earl of Warenne who was tenant-in-chief. It was only then that they needed to be identified by the locative name de Savile. The name of the Normandy village Serville itself arises from the Frankish personal name Saro (meaning a suit of armour) + ville not, as often quoted, from a Scandinavian (Viking) personal name.

Monastic Cash at the Dissolution by M. Collinson

The Yorkshire Records of the Court of Augmentations show that in the later stages of the dissolution some monastic houses surrendered to the crown soon after their autumn rent day, e.g. Kirkstall Abbey, which surrendered 22 November 1539. The crown made no claim to the recent rents, although there were some substantial sums, including over £450 at Guisborough Priory. It is suggested that the money was allowed to disappear quietly, the beneficiaries being the departing monks, and that this was part of the government’s policy of completing the dissolution quickly and without trouble.

Ian Howard Goodall [obituary]

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