YORKSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL


Volume 79 (2007)


CONTENTS


The Dynamics of Human Activity and Landscape Processes on the Yorkshire Wolds; An Assessment of Dry Valley Deposits at Cowlam Well Dale by C. Neal

The dry valley of the Yorkshire Wolds contain deposits that could significantly add to our archaeological understanding of the area. A programme of geoarchaeological fieldwork was undertaken during 2004 as part of a Masters degree in Archaeological Research at The University of York. This comprised a desk-based assessment, a topographical survey followed by an auger survey and then test pit excavation in a case study area. Evidence was found for human and natural induced erosional processes, a buried land surface and primary loess deposition. The geoarchaeological characterisation of dry valley sediment has enhanced our understanding of the landscape at Cowlam and has substantial utility for future archaeological research on the Yorkshire Wolds. This project is continuing as doctoral research at the University of York.

Archaeological Excavation of a Brickwork Plan Field System at Catesby Business Park, Balby Carr, Doncaster, South Yorkshire 2002 by L. Jones et al

A sequence of ditched rectilinear field enclosures and ditched droveways was excavated at Catesby Business Park, Balby Carr, Doncaster, South Yorkshire, in advance of a retail development. Two phases of ditch construction were identified. The field enclosures were part of a complex of ‘brickwork plan’ field system similar to those previously identified, to the south of the site, by aerial photography.

An unfinished Neolithic flint arrowhead was recovered, redeposited within the recut of one of the ditches. No pottery and very little bone was recovered from the enclosures and droveway ditches, during the excavation. Radiocarbon dating of waterlogged wood recovered from the ditch fills indicates the site dates from the mid to late Iron Age to the early Romano-British period.

The environmental evidence from the site suggests that the fields may have been used as pasture, with no evidence for the cultivation of crops on the low-lying waterlogged site itself. However, crops may have been cultivated locally on better drained drier areas of land. The surrounding landscape was probably mainly cleared of woodland with fields and copses of managed woodland.

Route I in Roman Britain: From the Frontier to the Humber by J.G.F. Hind

This article is concerned with the general direction, and individual stations on Route I of the Antonine Itinerary. It uses the evidence of the ancient toponyms, modern river-names and the archaeological evidence, for the date of the intermediate and terminal towns/forts. It is argued that the Route links important centres of population (poleis in Ptolemy’s Geography) and that, in the form we see it in the Itinerary, it was the main road running through the newly constituted York provincia (Britannia Inferior) in the years after A.D. 212-17 and on into the fourth century.

Catterick Metal Detecting Project with an Appendix on 1993 Evaluation Excavations South of Bainesse (site 506) and Within the Suburb of Cataractonium North of the River Swale by R.J. Brigstock et al

Three seasons of fieldwork undertaken jointly by metal detectorists and archaeologists recovered material from a site near Cataractonium Roman forts and ‘small town’ and the Bainesse Roman roadside settlement some 2 km to the south, following raids by ‘nighthawks’. Significant finds of military equipment and coins from Bainesse add to and modify our understanding of that site. In addition results from two evaluations undertaken in 1993 are presented – one within the northern suburb of Cataractonium and one south of Bainesse, the former providing new data on the latest structures within the suburb and section across Dere Street, and the latter demonstrating the existence of multiple phases of structures lining Dere Street.

Medieval Cross Slabs in the North Riding of Yorkshire: Chronology, Distribution and Social Implications by A. McClain

Cross slab grave covers are one of the most prevalent and significant forms of medieval commemoration, but they are also one of the least intensively studied. Although they have often been overlooked in favour of brasses and effigies, cross slabs played an equally important role in the construction of social identities and the communication of elite authority in the manorial landscape. This article undertakes a systematic archaeological investigation of the cross slabs of the North Riding of Yorkshire, exploring their stylistic features and chronological development throughout the Middle Ages, as well as examining the monuments within the physical and social contexts which were essential to their creation and use.

Excavations at the Barbican and Master Gunner’s House at Scarborough Castle, North Yorkshire by C. Hayfield et al

Excavations by the late Tony Pacitto at Scarborough Castle in 1977 investigated areas adjacent to the Master Gunners House and, in 1979, part of the Barbican. The latter produced evidence of a previously unknown gatehouse structure that was in use from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century. The Master Gunner’s House excavations may provide evidence of a northern extension of the inner bailey ditch, as well of post-civil war military use of the site. Clay pipes from the site are also reported on.

Excavations at the Gardens, Sprotborough, South Yorkshire by C. Fenton-Thomas et al

Sprotbrough is well known for the former stately home and landscape park and these excavations were less than 1km away from the house demolished in 1926. The archaeology work, carried out by On-Site Archaeology, identified occupation stretching from the late Iron Age through to the late seventeenth century but very little from the eighteenth and nineteenth century designed landscape. The discoveries of artefacts from the Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Scandinavian periods confirmed that there was a high status settlement close to the church in the centuries before the Norman Conquest. This period is poorly understood in the region and this is one of the rare discoveries of its kind in South Yorkshire. A stone building was built here in the mid-late twelfth century but it only lasted until the early part of the thirteenth. It was a high status structure with tiled roof and probably contained an internal well. The final phase of occupation took place during the seventeenth century and consisted of light industrial activity. There were two stone troughs fed by lead pipes and a stone culvert, as well as two large-scale ovens or furnaces. Elsewhere on the site, there were cobbled surfaces and small-scale structures from this period. One of these surfaces included a stone socket that was a re-used medieval cross shaft base. It may originally have held a standing stone cross in the centre of the village. The light industrial phase came to a sudden end in about 1680 and only a few years later about 1685, the land was altered again with the construction of the hall and park. The watching brief and evaluation identified garden features associated with the park including an ornamental canal, walls and planting pits.

German Prints, Flemish Craftsmen and Yorkshire Buildings – A Late Medieval Wood-Carving in Scarborough by A. Pacey

Facing the harbour at Scarborough, across the road known as Sandside, is the Newcastle Packet, a public house with applied “half-timbering” of the kind that was popular around 1900. Along one side of the building is preserved a fragment of a medieval structure that is elaborately carved in a manner reminiscent of continental rather than English architectural decoration.

An Early Description of the Devil’s Arrows, Boroughbridge, North Yorkshire by J. Walford

Facing the harbour at Scarborough, across the road known as Sandside, is the Newcastle Packet, a public house with applied “half-timbering” of the kind that was popular around 1900. Along one side of the building is preserved a fragment of a medieval structure that is elaborately carved in a manner reminiscent of continental rather than English architectural decoration.

Doncaster and the Church of St. George in the Eleventh Century by B. Barber

This brief note has two aims: to consider the evidence, firstly for supposing that Doncaster was a significant settlement at the time of Domesday and, secondly, for dating the foundation of the church of St George, now the church of the ancient parish, to before the conquest and specifically to 1061. The conclusion is that the date of 1061 asserted for the foundation of Doncaster St George rests entirely on error; and that the emergence of Doncaster as a significant settlement can most convincingly be dated to the post-Conquest period.

An Early Railway Building: The Weighing House, Whitby by A. White

Beside the line of the modern railway line leading south out of Whitby along the valley of the Esk at NZ898098 is the ruin of a little stone building, of great interest as a piece of very early railway architecture. The building is that used to house the weighing machine for goods carried on the original horse-drawn Whitby and Pickering Railway, and dates from 1834. The railway was at that time unfinished, but an important source of revenue for the company was the carriage of stone being quarried by the Whitby Stone Company a few miles further up the Esk valley. The early date of the weighing-house must be seen in that context.

Was There a Fire at Thorp Green Hall by H. Hibbs

The assertion that Thorp Green Hall, north-west of York, was destroyed by fire in 1898 is examined and challenged.

A Ritualistic Priest in Leeds: An Assessment of the First Fifteen Years of John Wylde’s Incumbency at St. Saviour’s Church (1877-1929) by R. Yates

John Wylde was inducted as Vicar of St Saviour’s Church, Leeds, in 1877. He served there for a remarkable fifty-two years. For the first fifteen years of his incumbency he kept a ‘day book’ in which he made brief notes of what he did from day to day. This record, together with the church magazine, St Saviour’s Monthly Paper, which he also started in 1877, provides evidence of how he helped to rescue St Saviour’s from its disastrous start and laid the foundation of its establishment as an accepted part of the Leeds ecclesiastical scene in the ritualist tradition.

Richard Lodge (1612-1656), Merchant of Leeds – His Disputed Will by D.K. Mason

Whilst it is generally accepted that the cloth merchants of Leeds were wealthy men who were admired and respected and who had importance and standing in society (several becoming Mayors or Aldermen), there is no detail available of just how wealthy most of these businessmen were. Little is known about their living standards or the magnitude of their business dealings. Nor is there any detail as to how they raised the necessary finance to carry on their trade, who their trading contacts were, and where the cloth came from. The discovery of a court case concerning a dispute over the will of Richard Lodge, details of which are given in the following article, provides much hitherto unknown information as well as an insight into the wealth and background of one of Leeds’ prominent and wealthy cloth merchants, who was also a staunch royalist supporter during the Civil War.

An Indenture Dated 1686 Between John Saunderson and John and Rachell Taylor by C. Colding Smith

This document is an indenture between John Saunderson of Bishop Burton and John and Rachell Taylor of Warter in the East Riding of Yorkshire. The indenture is in the possession of Special Collections, Baillieu Library, University of Melbourne, Australia, Parkville Campus. The transcription is preceded by a discussion of its palaeographical features, explanation of legal terms, comments on land ownership and comparisons with similar documents of this time but from other counties.

Dr Ian Goodall [obituary]

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