YORKSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL


Volume 78 (2006)


CONTENTS


All Saints Church, Burythorpe Archaeological Excavations 1995 by M.R.Stephens

Archaeological investigation in advance of an extension of Burythorpe Churchyard and associated tree-planting revealed features demonstrating occupation from the late Iron Age, or early Roman period to the fourth century AD. The later Roman occupation incorporated structures with stone slab floors and, in a subsequent phase with stone-built walls. It is suggested that in the latest phase the site might represent a possible villa. The finds assemblage incorporates later Neolithic and Bronze Age lithics, late Iron Age and Roman ceramics, as well as Roman period slag, tile and a possible tesserae.

A Yorkshire Fort and "Small Town": Roman Malton and Norton Reviewed by P. Wilson

The evidence for Roman period military and civilian occupation at Malton/Norton is reviewed, including data from PPG-16 interventions. The extent and character of the civilian settlement is considered, along with the burial evidence and that for craft and industry. It is suggested that the civilian settlements may have extended to some 22 ha, although in Norton it was inter-mixed with industrial and burial activity. The garrisons of the fort are discussed and the possibility of a Germanic garrison from the later third century proposed. The identification of the settlement with the Delgovicia of the Antonine Itinerary is preferred (after Creighton 1998) and it is suggested that the settlement should be considered a ‘small town’ rather than simply a vicus tied economically to the fort.

Flaxton - The Layout of the Original Planned Settlement by D. Bourne

The purpose of this article is to attempt to establish that the village settlement of Flaxton as recorded on the 1911 edition of the 1/2500 scale Ordnance Survey map of the area may represent remarkably faithfully the planned single-row settlement as it existed at the time of the Domesday survey in 1086, with the plot frontages of Domesday still largely to be discerned on the ground.

There are four distinct stages in the exercise: (1) The number of oxgangs or bovates in the township of Flaxton at Domesday, (2) The relationship in Flaxton of two oxgangs to one tenement, (3) The relationship between the number of tenements and the length of the frontage and (4) The sequence of events and their dating. The end result is rather similar to a four-storied house of cards – it may all too easily be demolished!

In the event, the research has led to the belief that the planned single-row settlement already existed at the time of the Conquest in 1066.

Recent Archaeological Work in the Dioceses of Ripon and Wakefield 1991-2000 by L. Butler

This report discusses archaeological work in two of the five Anglican dioceses in Yorkshire, indicating the nature of the opportunities and the extent of the recording. Nearly all the work at 60 different churches has been small-scale intervention, individually modest but cumulatively important. The large-scale excavations (Hickleton, Kellington, Royston, Stainburn) are still unpublished 10-30 years after they were first undertaken. Although more work is being commissioned from professional archaeological units, most of it disappears into the ‘grey literature’, thereby failing to stimulate local interest. The work at three buildings (Wakefield Cathedral, Little Ouseburn, Gilling West) is sufficiently significant or diverse to merit fuller publication here.

Recent Archaeological Work - Appendix A: Wakefield Cathedral 1974-1995 by A.C. Swann and I. Roberts

Recent Archaeological Work - Appendix B: Little Ouseburn by L. Butler

Recent Archaeological Work - Appendix C: Gilling West by L. Butler

The Romanesque Chancel Arch at Liverton, North Riding by R. Wood


The chancel arch capitals, with carving of figures, foliage and both real and imaginary animals, embody a unified teaching scheme based on two sermons of St. Augustine of Hippo. This scheme covers the Fall, the Incarnation and Christian life here and hereafter. It is likely to have been designed by an Augustinian based, at least temporarily, at Guisborough Priory. Comparisons are made with sculpture locally, in other parts of the county, at Tutbury in Staffordshire and even as far away as Milan. The crane and wyverns are among motifs discussed.

The End of medieval Monasticism in the North Riding of Yorkshire by C. Cross

The suppression of monasticism in the North Riding of Yorkshire seems to have taken the local inhabitants entirely by surprise. Drawing chiefly upon the evidence from wills, this article investigates the impact of North Riding religious houses upon regional society in the early part of the reign of Henry VIII, considers the process of the dissolution and traces the subsequent careers of some of the former monks, friars and nuns.

"The Power and Influence of Goalers": Life and death in York Castle Gaol 1705-1745 by P. Woodfine

York Castle Gaol, or ‘Debtors’ Prison’, resembles a handsome Queen Anne mansion, but this examination of its early history offers a corrective to optimistic views of the conditions experienced by debtor prisoners in the first half of the eighteenth century. Overcrowding, hunger and disease menaced debtors and felons alike within York gaol. The gaol’s keepers inflicted repeated abuses: excessive fees, overcharging for daily necessities, and even physical maltreatment. A detailed examination of the death of debtor William Petyt, at the hands of gaoler Thomas Griffiths in 1741, reveals the extent of the power of gaolers, and the vulnerability of debtors.

Death Becomes Her: The Mourning and Commemoration of Elite Women in Yorkshire 1720-1860 by R.M. Larsen

The aristocratic way of life was closely tied up to aristocracy’s way of death: for a leading member of one generation to die was to advance the dynastic future of the family in the next generation, as bereavement reshaped the identities of living and dead. These new identities could be shaped by mourning practices, which stressed familial alliances, through the offering of consolation to the bereaved, which allowed friends and distant relations to provide support; and through commemoration, which allowed the identities of the deceased to be recreated and fixed, quite literally, in stone. This article explores these practices by examining the experiences of elite women in Yorkshire, and argues that their ‘new’ identities were shaped by the notion of ‘aristocratic femininity’, an ideal associated with both their gender and their class.

An Episode in the Career of John Hustler by P. Holmes

The discovery of a digest of the accounts of the partnership of John Hustler and Thomas Hardcastle, colliers and coal merchants, which was in business from 1781 to 1806, shows how Yorkshire entrepreneurs played a crucial role in the development of coal-mining in Lancashire. Having helped in the creation of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, the two Bradford businessmen set up a successful company in conjunction with John Wright, a prominent London banker, which mined coal in the Orrell area and sent it by the canal, in boats belonging to the partnership, to Liverpool where Hardcastle based himself as a coal-merchant. The accounts furnish evidence for the nature and scale of the business and its profitability. Further information about the partners and their families is also provided from wills and vital records.

Currents of Electoral Independence: James Lowther and Popular Politics in York c1865-1880 by M. Roberts

This article focuses on electoral politics in the borough of York and uses the political career of James Lowther, Conservative MP for York (1865-1880), as a case study to explore the continuing importance of local and regional issues in mid-Victorian provincial politics. Although the mid-Victorian years saw the re-emergence of parliamentary reform and other momentous political issues, there remained considerable electoral value in appealing to civic ideologies of independence and protecting local rights and privileges. Lowther was able to construct a broad-based coalition of voters by drawing on, and reworking, eighteenthcentury traditions of electoral independence. As such, this article sets Lowther’s electoral politics within the context of the ‘long’ eighteenth century: the persistence of local issues and independency; the reactionary nature of his politics and the pre-industrial composition of the York electorate, all point to a political culture that was more akin to the pre-1832 ‘unreformed system’ than to the ostensibly ‘modernised’, ‘nationalised’ and disciplined world of Victorian popular politics. The article concludes by locating York within the wider context of the mid-Victorian electoral system and highlights some of the different types of continuities that exist between Georgian and Victorian popular politics.

St Chad's Cell at Meanwood Leeds, Note by L. Butler

Maurice Beresford [Obituary] by L. Butler

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