YORKSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL


Volume 77 (2005)


CONTENTS


Local antiquarians, Thornborough Rings, and other prehistoric monuments near Ripon by R. A. Hall

Descriptions, discussions and interpretations of henges and barrows in the vicinity of Ripon, originally published by local antiquarians, are presented as examples of mid-Victorian archaeological thought in Yorkshire. Some newly discovered archive material – plans and cross-sections of henges, including Thornborough Rings, a drawing relating to the excavation of a barrow near the Hutton Moor henge, and the illustrations of two Bronze Age spearheads, one from Hutton Moor; the other from Rainton-cum-Newby – add details to one of these accounts.

Watchtowers and fortlets of the North Yorkshire coast (Turres et Castra) by J.G.F. Hind

Using literary and archaeological evidence, in combination with inscriptions and numismatic data, this paper considers the date, contemporary terminology and purpose of the series of late fourth-century Roman fortified sites, conventionally known as ‘signal-stations’, located on the Yorkshire coast at Huntcliffe, Goldsborough, Scarborough, Filey and on the evidence of an inscription Ravenscar. The traditional dating of AD 368/9 is favoured, as is the adoption of the term ‘towers and fortlets’ (called burgi on the Rhine-Danube frontier) in preference to ‘signal-stations’. The security of the late Roman high command and army in this northern province, based on York, is suggested as their primary purpose.

Whitby Merels board by M.A. Hall

This paper is a fresh examination of the fragmentary graffito-on-stone gaming board recovered during the 1920s excavation of Whitby Abbey by Peers and Radford. A clear identification of the game of merels or nine men’s morris is made, along with the possibilities for its dating and its broader context within medieval gaming culture.

Excavation of the great hall or "Kyngeshalle" at Scarborough Castle, North Yorkshire by C. Hayfield and T. Pacitto

The three seasons of excavations carried out by the late Tony Pacitto on the medieval hall within the Castle Garth at Scarborough Castle were designed to investigate and record the surviving archaeological evidence that remained after Colonel Peck’s excavations of 1888. The hall is shown to have been rebuilt on at least one occasion, and it is suggested that the original hall was probably constructed as part of the building works of Henry II, somewhat earlier than hitherto suspected.

St Oswald's Church, Filey: a study of a cruciform church in North Yorkshire by N. Milner

St. Oswald’s Church, Filey, is a large church of cruciform plan and in its regional context this layout appears to be unique. A study of the construction phases of the church suggests that a tower was originally built at the west end in the 12th century. It would appear from the rebuilding of some of the west end walls that this tower may have collapsed or was taken down because it was unsafe. The reasons for this were probably because the supporting pillars are not aligned and the underlying ground slopes away which may have caused structural problems. As a consequence a crossing tower was constructed and later additions to the church were made in the Early English style.

Excavations at West Street, Gargrave, North Yorkshire by A.E. Finney et al

During 1997 excavations were undertaken in advance of development at West Street, Gargrave on one of the two moated sites known in Gargrave. The earliest evidence for structural activity came from the twelfth/thirteenth century and consisted of at least three timber buildings of posthole construction. The moat and associated buildings underwent several phases of re-cutting and remodelling in the medieval period. The moat was backfilled in the post-medieval period and the area used for construction activities associated with the Old Hall including limekilns. Under half of the moat platform was excavated and further structures may have existed outside of those areas investigated. During the life of the moat changes to the interior were also implemented.

Seal matrices: recent Yorkshire discoveries by I.H. Szymanski

The introduction of the Portable Antiquities Scheme in 1997 has resulted in a large amount of material being brought forward by members of the public for recording, including a large number of seal matrices from the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The volume of this material means that it is possible to begin to derive some meaningful statistical information about the types and styles of matrix used, and attempt to relate them to their broader historical context. The first part of this paper concentrates on the statistical evidence, and the second discusses some of the more interesting examples in greater detail.

Exemplary wives and Godly matrons: women's contribution to the life of York Minster between the Reformation and the Civil War by C. Cross

This article considers the effect upon York Minster, since the Norman Conquest an exclusively male preserve, of the legislation permitting the clergy to marry passed by Parliament for the first time during the reign of Edward VI, abnegated under Mary but then reinstated on Elizabeth’s accession. While little information, apart from the fact of their marriages, survives for some of the pioneering women who dared to break an age long taboo by establishing clerical households within the close, others, for whom the evidence is more abundant, emerge as active disseminators of Protestantism in the initially conservative city and diocese of York.

"A stiff-necked, wilful and obstinate people": the Catholic laity in the North York Moors, c1559-1603 by E. Watson

This essay reassesses the role of lay men and women in the preservation of the Roman Catholic faith in the North York Moors region during the reign of Elizabeth I. Traditional views of Yorkshire as a backward and ignorant county are challenged, with evidence that the people of this region were active participants in the development and continuation of their Catholic communities and made the most of the significant numbers of missionary priests who came to England by way of the Yorkshire coast.

A Swiss milady in Yorkshire: Sabine Winn of Nostell Priory by C. Todd

By marrying a foreigner; the fifth Baronet of Nostell, Rowland Winn, broke with traditional aristocratic networking arrangements. His wife, Sabine, was never entirely accepted, even though she came from a prominent Swiss Huguenot banking family and her money helped transform Nostell. Though Rowland’s political career failed, he was often away on business, leaving Sabine at Nostell to deal with domestic matters, including ever-troublesome servants. She was emotionally dependent on her husband and after his death, became a recluse, even refusing to see her daughter following the latter’s elopement with the local baker. Sabine appears from her letters as a somewhat passive, self-centred figure who does not fit the model of the strong female chatelaine favoured in recent historiography.

Sheffield community and public work, 1790-1914 by J. Roach

This article is a study of formative figures in the industrial, professional and community life of Sheffield and its region, and of their contributions to creating a more civilised life for the people. It concentrates on a small number of groups: the medical profession in its social aspects; some friendship connections and their social and political objectives; and the long campaign to create the University, charted in 1905. Special attention is given to the close networks within which Sheffield life was structured. With a few exceptions, groups of this kind have not previously been much studied by historians.

Emerson Bainbridge of Newcastle & Sheffield, an overlooked entrepreneur by D. Wilmot

Emerson Bainbridge was born in Newcastle upon Tyne but spent most of his professional life in Sheffield and south Yorkshire. A late-nineteenth century mining and civil engineer with a firm approach to his business dealings, Bainbridge is remembered locally more for his philanthropic gestures. Yet the deaths of his wife, father and other family members in the mid-1890s changed his life. He purchased a large shooting estate in the Scottish Highlands, married a girl of his daughter’s age, and lost his parliamentary ambition.

Private Mark Yewdall 764281, 28th Battalion, London Regiment, (Artists' Rifles) and the Battle of Passchendaele by D. Eastwood

Mark Yewdall’s ancestors had lived in the Eccleshill-Calverley area since at least 1556. Although his Methodist and Quaker background could have given cause to appeal as a conscientious objector, he joined the Army in 1916 as a private in the Artists’ Rifles. His letters to his parents give an exceptionally vivid account of his training and active service, in particular the last stages of the Battle of Passchendaele. He died in the Spanish Influenza epidemic the following year.

A Century of Yorkshire archaeology and history 1900-2000: the Kitson Clarks of Meanwoodside and beyond [Mary Kitson Clark obituary] by C.S. Briggs

The death of Mary Chitty (born Kitson Clark) early in 2005 marks the end of one Yorkshire family’s service to northern archaeology and British history covering much of the twentieth century. The narrative which follows is intended to celebrate that service by offering a tribute to the contributions made by Mary and her father Edwin. Offering no more than basic introductions to some of the subject-matter, it draws upon a rapid literature search, published bibliographies, and to a limited degree on manuscript material. This, it is hoped, may stimulate others to undertake a more deservedly in-depth study, or studies of the Kitson Clarks, their home and history writing, their foundry and legacy to Yorkshire’s education and welfare.

Brian Rodgerson Hartley MA, FSA (1929-2005) [obituary]

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