YORKSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL


Volume 75 (2003)


CONTENTS


Recent Discoveries Of Prehistoric Rock Motifs — The Wainstones Site by B.A. Smith

In 2001 the author discovered three large sandstone rocks in the Garfit Gap col between the Wainstones, and the northern end of Cold Moor, on the North York Moors, in Bilsdale Midcable civil parish. Prehistoric markings were evident on their surfaces.It was possible to see cups, grooves and rings that were consistent with rock motifs seen at established ‘rock art’ sites in Northern England. These rocks exhibit similar levels of severe weathering to examples seen on Brow Moor, near Ravenscar.

The Garfit Gap is the truncated remains of a valley, the head of which once existed further to the north, before the Jurassic hills were eroded to their present position. The rocks that are the subject of this paper are from this layer of Jurassic sandstone. Jet-mining waste tips and the direct quarrying of sandstone rocks have altered the landscape since the stones were marked, and may have resulted in the burying or loss of petroglyphs.

Two Roman Intaglios From Craven by M. Henig and A. King

During research on the collection at the Craven Museum, Skipton, an amethyst intaglio was drawn to our attention. This gemstone was donated to the museum in August 1934 by Mr Tom Hargreaves of Embsay, Skipton; the findspot was entered in the museum accessions ledger as ‘Wennigber’. Locating ‘-ber’ placenames meant focusing the search on the drumlin swarm between Hellifield and Gargrave, though to complicate matters the western part of the present Craven district is drained by the river Wenning, a tributary of the Lune. The issue was resolved when it was realised that some months prior to the excavation of the Bronze Age burial cairn at Lingber Hill, Hellifield, in 1885 an amethystine intaglio was found on the site.

The subject is at the present time unique in Roman Britain.

Roman Villa At Blansby Park, Pickering: Excavations At The Park Gate Roman Site In 2000 by L. Watts et al

This report describes an excavation in 2000 on a Roman villa at Blansby Park, near Pickering, North Yorkshire, north-west of the Roman fort at Malton. The villa is at the southern extremity of a complex of prehistoric and Roman sites in the Park. The principal buildings are on the edge of the flood plain of the Pickering Beck. One of the buildings examined, probably the bath-house of the villa, is located very close to the river.

The villa is one of several centred around Malton, and the most northerly of villas in this part of England, though the well-known late Roman signal stations extend further north up the coast. The nearest villa to Blansby Park is at Beadlam, in a similar riverside location; this is the only villa in the group north-west of Malton to have been extensively excavated

It is generally assumed that villas such as Blansby Park and Beadlam were the neuclei of large estates exploiting arable and other resources of the Vale and Moors, not least for markets at Malton and York.

 

Roman Coins From Ugthorpe, North Yorkshire by D. Shotter

This article considers Roman coins found at Ugthorpe, North Yorkshire. In 1998 three metal-detectorists recovered twenty-three early imperial denarii from a location which was evidently very close to the find-spot of a much larger group of such coins in 1792. The 1792 - coins were revealed during ploughing near Ugthorpe Mill, estimated recently as a hoard amounting to approximately 200 coins, which may be regarded as an ‘average size’ for hoards of denarii found in Britain. The owner of the land on which the coins were found in the eighteenth century sold the majority of them to local silversmiths, although five were ‘saved’, which Young was able to see: these were issues of Vespasian (posthumous), Nerva, Trajan (?), Marcus Aurelius and Faustina II. It is not, however, made clear whether either or both of the last two coins were issued of the reigns of Antoninus Pius or of Marcus Aurelius. At most, therefore, the date-range of Young’s five coins is AD 79-180.

Romanesque Tomb-Slab At Bridlington Priory by R. Wood

The slab at Bridlington Priory is described, various other Tournai marble slabs and fonts in England are compared with it. The four motifs – symmetrical wyverns, a building, the fable of the Fox and Crane, a lion – are interpreted. Lastly, it is suggested that the slab was ordered by the priory to commemorate the founder, Walter de Gant.

Archbishop Melton's Donations To York Minster: Strengthening The See by C.A. Stanford

Although the study of medieval patrons can tell us much about the relationship between art and politics, little light has been shed on the artistic patronage of William de Melton, Archbishop of York,1317-40. Melton has been lauded for centuries as a generous contributor to the cathedral fabric, but this view of him was overturned by Henry Kraus in the twentieth century. An analysis of Melton, however, can offer more than admiration or condemnation of him as a person or even as a patron. His three donations to the Minster were far less important to him than other aspects of his political and economic programmes, and Melton’s patronage, like that of many served the interests of his grander schemes. Scholars have explained Melton in terms of his politics or fiscal policies, but have not explained how these concerns informed his donations to the Minster. Such analysis is important not merely for understanding the context of certain works at York Minster. It also sheds light on the dynamic between art and politics in fourteenth century England, by the way in which Melton used certain monuments to emphasise York’s status as an independent regional centre and at the same time strengthen his ties to the court.

Isabel Plumpton: A Life In Law by E. Hawkes

This article offers a brief biography of Isabel Plumpton, a sixteenth century Yorkshire gentlewoman. The focus is on her legal undertakings and her knowledge of the law from the time of her marriage in 1496 to her death in 1552. Her legal activities and then the extent to which she understood the law and directed the legal procedures are assessed.

Almost all Isabel’s litigation stemmed from a dispute about her inheritance. When the contract for her marriage to William Plumpton was drawn up in 1496, her uncle William Babthorpe agreed that she would take the manors of Sacombe in Hertfordshire and Waterton in Lincolnshire as well as lands in Hertfordshire, Lincolnshire and Yorkshire. William Babthorpe and his heir would have other family estates in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. However, by 1499 Isabel’s father-in-law Robert Plumpton was already suing William Babthorpe for the remainder of the Babthorpe estate, the manors of Babthorpe and Osgodby in the East Riding. This dispute, between the claims of Isabel Plumpton as the heir general and those of William Babthorpe and his son as the heirs male, was argued in common law and equity courts for the next sixty years.

 

A Seventeenth-Century Recusant Family Library: Middleton Of Stockeld by M. Johnson & B. Maltby

The homes of strangers have a potent fascination. They tell us something about their lives and tastes; they help us to establish them within the framework of our understanding whereby we categorise them according to their economic, social and intellectual position. Their bookshelves give us an even greater insight into their individual mental orientation The choice of what books to buy, either to read or to put on the shelves, tells us something about the purchaser’s interests or self image. It was for this reason that the discovery of a seventeenth century library list in the archives of the Middleton family was fascinating as it promised to throw light on the reading habits of a Catholic recusant family. It appeared worthy of examination, despite the obvious limitation imposed by the fact that no trace of the books themselves could be found. Assuming that the book purchases represented the tastes and interests of the inheritors of Stockeld and their families, the library has been analysed in detail.

The Haworth Church Rate Controversy by M. Baumer

The roots of local taxation stretch back into the early Middle Ages. From time immemorial the villagers had regarded the repair of the parish church, together with the repair of the highway or bridge or sea-wall, as a public service; and by the beginning of the fourteenth century the custom was formal in ecclesiastical law. The rector was legally responsible for repairing the chancel. The parishioners were legally responsible for repairing the nave and maintaining the churchyard. The rate for this purpose was probably not levied regularly, nor was its nature codified until after the Elizabethan poor law acts. The 1601 act standardised the collection of poor rate and soon the highways rate, the church rate and the rate supporting the constable were assessed on the same basis. They were collected on the authority of the annual vestry meeting. With church rate, however, there was this important difference. If the parishioners refused poor rate, they were liable to penalty at common law before the secular courts. If they refused church rate, they were liable to penalty at ecclesiastical law before the ecclesiastical courts.

In the case of Haworth there was an added complication. It was a chapelry within the parish of Bradford. The most that the vicar would do was provide a chaplain, who found it difficult to support himself until a supplementary income was provided by the establishment of a chantry in the fourteenth century. If the people of Haworth wanted more they would have to raise it themselves, so when the chantry was abolished in 1548 the inhabitants clubbed together and bought five farms in Stanbury, the rents of which were used to pay a perpetual curate. Unlike an assistant curate he had security of tenure but tithes were still paid to the parish church in Bradford. However, the question of tithes seems to have created little controversy, probably because the freeholders purchased over half of them in the early seventeenth century. The agreement allowed the local trustees to reject any nominee of the vicar they did not like, though as they controlled the income of the perpetual curate they could usually get the man they wanted.

 

Eighteenth- And Nineteenth-Century Clay Tobacco Pipes From Pontefract Castle by S.D. White & P.J. Davey

Excavations carried out at Pontefract Castle between 1982 and 1986 produced a total of 3420 clay tobacco pipe fragments. The majority of the pipe fragments date to the early mid-seventeenth century, being the largest well-sealed assemblage of Civil War pipes anywhere in England. In addition to the important seventeenth century assemblage from the site, Pontefract Castle has also provided a valuable insight into clay pipe production and use in West Yorkshire over the following two centuries. There is a small collection of eighteenth century finds and one of the best nineteenth century production assemblages from the county.

Yorkshire And The Fifteen by J. Oates

In 1952 Cedric Collyer had an excellent article published in the YAJ covering the county and the Forty-Five Rebellion. Since then, there have been a number of articles of varying quality, concerning Yorkshire, or about particular towns therein, during that rebellion. However, nothing has been published about Yorkshire during the Jacobite rebellion of thirty years earlier. This is probably owing to the far scantier source material available, and is symptomatic of the fact that the Forty-Five has had far more coverage than the earlier rebellion.

This article surveys the responses in Yorkshire to the 1715 rebellion. It does not detail the few Jacobites in the county – they have been covered in a previous article in this journal. Instead, it surveys the responses of the various elements of county administration and society towards the rebellion. These were as follows: the Lieutenancy, Quarter Sessions, the Sheriff and the Corporations, as well as the Anglican Church and society. This article examines the impact and the effectiveness of those in the county acting in support of the Hanoverian dynasty.

 

Yorkshire Jacobites: A List ... by J. Oates

Since the 1970s, there has been academic interest in the study of the English Jacobites, a hitherto unexamined subject. Eveline Cruickshanks in Political Untouchables: The Tories and the Forty Five (1979) lists those in England, county by county, who were reckoned as Jacobites in 1743, and Paul Monod in Jacobitism and the English People, 1688-1788 (1989) gives totals of those indicted at the Assizes, circuit by circuit, in 1715-16 and in 1745-46. This list covers those Yorkshire Jacobites who, during the periods of the Fifteen and the Forty-Five rebellions, were accused of offences against the state, either of being involved in armed rebellion, or, as was more common, of making seditious comments. Whether these people were merely the tip of a large iceberg of sedition or were representative of the weak nature of Jacobitism in Yorkshire is a matter of debate. For one view, see Jonathan Oates, “The Jacobites of Yorkshire’ in YAJ 74 (2002).

The sources used, which are fully noted in this article, include quarter sessions records from the county record offices, assize and state papers from the Public Record Office and contemporary newspapers.

 

T. D. Whitaker, 1759-1821: Historian Of Yorkshire And Lancashire by P. Maryfield

Thomas Dunham Whitaker, antiquarian, historian and topographer, is a fine representative of the gentleman-scholar who graced late-eighteenth-century English society. He might well be compared with Edward Gibbon. He was privately tutored, educated at Cambridge for a career in law, a fine classicist and linguist and as enthusiastic about the latest Scott novel as he was about his favourite Roman authors. He belonged to the gentry of east Lancashire, and unexpectedly inherited the small family estate of Holme-in-Cliviger, near Burnley, on his brother’s death in 1760. Thomas’s main achievement was his remarkably prolific writing on the local history of Lancashire and Yorkshire and the respect with which his works have continued to be held. Of his topographical works the first two are the best. These are the History of Whalley and the History of Craven. He was also a reviewer, sermon-writer, editor and translator.

The Dewhursts Of Skipton: A Dynasty Of Cotton Masters 1789 To 1897 by K.C. Jackson

The brand name ‘Sylko’ was adopted early in the twentieth century by the English Sewing Cotton Company to promote the mercerised cotton sewing thread manufactured by its subsidiary John Dewhurst & Sons of Skipton.

The Dewhurst family’s connection with cotton textiles extends back to at least 1789. Agricultural activity provided a living for earlier generations. In 1828 a steam-powered factory known as Belle Vue Mill was established in Skipton, and this was subsequently extended in stages. By the second half of the nineteenth century, the mill was by far the largest in the town.

During the mid-nineteenth century, Belle Vue Mills were operated, partially, as an integrated cotton mill, but during the period after the American Civil War this form of organisation became increasingly unprofitable. The Dewhursts also supplied the worsted trade with cotton warps, but by the 1860s this source of demand was declining. The launch of the sewing thread business in 1871 was therefore timely. However, by the 1890s strong competition in the sewing thread market resulted in amalgamations, including the formation of the English Sewing Cotton Company in 1897, of which John Dewhurst & Sons was one of the founding members. Sewing thread production continued at Belle Vue Mills until 1983.

This article examines the development of the Dewhursts’ business up to 1897 and explains how a family of tenant farmers accumulated industrial capital, thereby acquiring commercial influence and social standing. An account of Dewhurst family history is given in the Appendix.

 

A South Yorkshire Baptist Cause: Cemetery Road Sheffield, 1839- 1909 by M. Booth

A noticeable feature of the Cemetery Road Baptist cause in Sheffield is that it was not a native phenomenon initiated in response to an obvious need. Unlike Baptist causes elsewhere such as Stone Yard in Cambridge and its successor St Andrew’s Street Baptist Church, Cemetery Road did not represent a coming together of scattered though local dissenters seeking a spiritual home through voluntary association. Neither did it emerge through a process of denominational strife and secession. It has instead the guise of intruder, the fruit of determined mission undertaken by outsiders in a town already boasting a long tradition of political and religious independence.

Baptist missionaries came to Sheffield from Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire via Nottingham with prejudices and attitudes formed by experience of those places. Conditioned neither by Sheffield nor by Sheffield opinion, they gave an impression of constituting a separate community within the town.

 

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